Mosquito Species

There are many species of mosquitoes, which can be found all around the world. The female species is responsible for the irritating bites we suffer from and these bites can also carry fatal diseases.

Read more about the lifecycles and habits of different types of mosquitoes below.

Anopheles Mosquito

(Anopheles SPP.)

The Anopheles mosquito is responsible for transmitting malaria.

Appearance

  • Adult – pale and dark marks on its wings and resting 45 degree angle to the surface.
  • Larval rest parallel to surface of the water.
  • Egg is about 1mm long and has floats on its sides.

Life Cycle

  • Egg to adult stage takes 6 – 10 days.
  • Complete metamorphosis – egg, larval, pupa and adult.

Habits

  • Habitat – prefer clean and unpolluted water.
  • Biting rhythm – bite at night and rest indoor and outdoor (depends on species).
  • Prefer darker colours.
  • Female with one blood meal can lay 50 – 150 eggs.

Aedes Mosquitoes

(Aedes Aegypti)

The bites from an Aedes mosquito peak at the change of light intensity (after sunrise and before sunset).

Appearance

  • Adult has black and white markings.
  • Larval rest 45 degree from the surface of the water.
  • Egg is black in colour and shape like a rugby ball.

Life Cycle

  • Egg to adult stage takes 6 – 8 days.
  • Complete metamorphosis – egg, larval, pupa and adult.

Habits

  • Habitat – container breeder especially man-made containers with clean water.
  • Prefer darker colours like black and red.
  • Can fly short distance (50 – 100m).

Culex Mosquito

(Culex Tritaeniorhynchus)

Culex mosquitoes are the main vector for Japanese B – Encephalitis

Appearance

  • Adult – thorax, legs and veins on the wings are always covered with brown scales. Dull in colour. The tip of the abdomen is always blunt.
  • Larval rest 45 degree from the surface of the water.
  • Egg is brown, long and cylindrical, vertical on water surface, cemented in a raft of 300 eggs. Raft usually 3 – 4mm long and 2 – 3mm wide.

Life Cycle

  • Egg to adult stage takes 6 – 10 days.
  • Complete metamorphosis – egg, larval, pupa and adult.

Habits

  • Habitat – mainly breed in paddy field, polluted stagnant water and drains.
  • Biting rhythm – bite at night and usually rest indoor before and after the blood meal. Sometimes they may rest outdoor.
  • Prefer darker colours.
  • Long distance fliers.

Biting Midge

(Culicoides impunctatus)

Appearance

  • Small flying insect.
  • Adult midges are about 1.5 - 4.0mm long.

Life Cycle

  • Lifespan of 20 to 30 days.
  • Hatched from eggs.
  • Egg batches contain between 30-100 eggs.
  • 1 to 2 day larvae stage.

Habits

  • Lives in bog land, near lakes and ponds, marshland, rivers and streams and general wetlands.
  • Feeds on blood.
  • Tendency to swarm.
  • Found in upland and lowland areas especially in the north west of Scotland from late spring to late summer.
  • Most active at dusk and dawn.

Dark Winged Fungus Gnat

(Family Sciaridae)

The Dark Winged Fungus Gnat can cause damage to the root of plants.

Appearance

  • Adult – 5 - 7mm. Grey/black bodies.
  • Larvae up to 5.5 mm long. White, shiny black heads and transparent.

Life Cycle

  • Females lay up between 100 and 300 eggs, which hatch in 4 to 6 days.
  • The larvae feed for 12 to 14 days.
  • The pupal stage lasts about 6 days.
  • Adults live about 7 to 10 days.

Habits

  • Larvae can injure the roots of bedding plants.
  • They are poor fliers and can generally be seen running across plant surfaces.